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03 Nov 2011
We see thousands of products and services which are being afford by different people or manufacturer in various factories and organizations. This process of manufacturing goods and services is carried out in a smooth way. Activities taking place during the manufacturing of goods and services are managed quite carefully. This study of managing various activities performed in various concerns is called management. The term management refers to coordinating the work activities through or with the people in a way that an organization can achieved or accomplished their goals and tasks effectively and efficiently. The management process consists of four phases which have been elaborated as under. Planning is the first step in management process. Defining goals and establishing strategies in order to achieve those goals and coordinating them with the employees are called planning. Planning could be of various types on different basis. These can be short term as well as long term on the basis of time. Planning can be strategically and as well as operational. Strategically planning takes place and the top level of management while operational planning is carried out at the lower level of management. Second phase of the management process is organizing. Under this phase of management process we organize various resources including capital, building, machinery and human capital as well. In order to carry out different plans, resources of all kinds are necessary. And to manage these resources is of paramount importance because unnecessary use of these resources can lead an organizational to its destruction. As you know without capital an organization is unable to purchase raw material, machinery and even its infrastructure. Without the presence of these things and an organization cannot work. Leading and staffing is the third step in the management process. In this phase people are selected, trained and highly motivated to perform their relevant work. Here the role of leader is very important. A leader is one who can influence the behavior of the people. He contains various building characteristics such as honest and dignity, intelligence, knowledge regarding the relevant field, desire to lead and should be capable enough to understand the circumstances and could enough to predict various solutions for unseen problems .Depending upon the situations leader can behave in different manners while making decisions for the organizations. He can be bureaucratic and can also be democratic. Without controlling the management process is completely useless. Controlling is actually a difference between the desired and actual state and result. If there is any difference between the desired and actual results it means we have either under estimated ourselves or overestimated over selves. After doing some collective measures are made in order to get rid of this difference between actual and desired state.


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